These functions offer methods for summarising the closure in configurations in one-, two-, and three-mode networks.

```
graph_reciprocity(object, method = "default")
graph_transitivity(object)
graph_equivalency(object)
graph_congruency(object, object2)
```

- object
A one-mode or two-mode matrix, igraph, or tidygraph

- method
For reciprocity, either

`default`

or`ratio`

. See`?igraph::reciprocity`

- object2
Optionally, a second (two-mode) matrix, igraph, or tidygraph

For one-mode networks, shallow wrappers of igraph versions exist via
`graph_reciprocity`

and `graph_transitivity`

.

For two-mode networks, `graph_equivalency`

calculates the proportion of three-paths in the network
that are closed by fourth tie to establish a "shared four-cycle" structure.

For three-mode networks, `graph_congruency`

calculates the proportion of three-paths
spanning two two-mode networks that are closed by a fourth tie to establish a
"congruent four-cycle" structure.

`graph_reciprocity`

: Calculate reciprocity in a (usually directed) network`graph_transitivity`

: Calculate transitivity in a network`graph_equivalency`

: Calculate equivalence or reinforcement in a (usually two-mode) network`graph_congruency`

: Calculate congruency across two two-mode networks

Robins, Garry L, and Malcolm Alexander. 2004.
Small worlds among interlocking directors: Network structure and distance in bipartite graphs.
*Computational & Mathematical Organization Theory* 10(1): 69–94.
doi:10.1023/B:CMOT.0000032580.12184.c0
.

Knoke, David, Mario Diani, James Hollway, and Dimitris C Christopoulos. 2021.
*Multimodal Political Networks*.
Cambridge University Press. Cambridge University Press.
doi:10.1017/9781108985000

Other measures:
`centralisation`

,
`centrality`

,
`cohesion()`

,
`diversity`

,
`features`

,
`holes`

```
graph_reciprocity(ison_southern_women)
#> [1] 1
graph_transitivity(ison_southern_women)
#> [1] 0
graph_equivalency(ison_southern_women)
#> [1] 0.487
```