Functions for constructing, simulating, and importing one-mode and two-mode networks:

create_empty() create_complete() create_ring() create_star() create_tree() create_lattice() create_components() create_core()

Make networks with defined structures

generate_random() generate_smallworld() generate_scalefree() generate_permutation()

Make networks with a stochastic element

read_matrix() read_edgelist() write_edgelist() read_nodelist() write_nodelist() read_pajek() write_pajek() read_ucinet() write_ucinet() read_dynetml()

Make networks from/to external formats


Functions for coercing objects between different classes, reformatting or transforming the type of network, or adding information to or retrieving information from the network.

as_edgelist() as_matrix() as_igraph() as_tidygraph() as_network() as_siena() as_graphAM()

Coercion between migraph-compatible object classes

to_uniplex() to_undirected() to_redirected() to_unweighted() to_unsigned() to_unnamed() to_named() to_simplex() to_onemode() to_multilevel() to_twomode()

Tools for reformatting networks, graphs, and matrices

to_egos() to_subgraphs() to_components()

Tools for splitting networks, graphs, and matrices

to_mode1() to_mode2() to_giant() to_subgraph() to_ties() to_blocks() to_matching() to_anti()

Tools for transforming networks, graphs, and matrices

add_node_attribute() add_tie_attribute() copy_node_attributes() join_ties()

Adding and copying attributes from one graph to another

node_names() node_mode() node_attribute() tie_attribute() tie_weights() tie_signs() network_nodes() network_ties() network_dims() network_node_attributes() network_tie_attributes()

Grab various node or edge attributes from a network


Functions for identifying properties of graphs, nodes or ties, all returning logical scalars or vectors. Note that all node_ and tie_ measures return a single vector so that they can be added directly to graph objects. network_ measures return one or, in some cases of two-mode measures, two values.

is_migraph() is_graph() is_edgelist() is_twomode() is_weighted() is_directed() is_labelled() is_signed() is_connected() is_complex() is_multiplex() is_uniplex() is_acyclic() is_aperiodic() is_perfect_matching() is_eulerian()

Marking networks based on their properties

node_is_cutpoint() node_is_isolate() node_is_core() node_is_random() node_is_max() node_is_min()

Marking nodes based on their properties

tie_is_multiple() tie_is_loop() tie_is_reciprocated() tie_is_bridge() tie_is_max() tie_is_min()

Marking ties based on their properties


Functions for measuring multimodal networks, all returning numeric scalars or vectors. Note that all node_ and tie_ measures return a single vector so that they can be added directly to graph objects. network_ measures return one or, in some cases of two-mode measures, two values.

network_density() network_components() network_cohesion() network_adhesion() network_diameter() network_length()

Measures of network cohesion or connectedness

node_degree() node_closeness() node_betweenness() node_eigenvector() node_reach() node_power()

Measures of node centrality

tie_degree() tie_closeness() tie_betweenness() tie_eigenvector()

Measures of tie centrality

network_degree() network_closeness() network_betweenness() network_eigenvector()

Measures of network centralisation

network_reciprocity() node_reciprocity() network_transitivity() node_transitivity() network_equivalency() network_congruency()

Measures of network closure

node_bridges() node_redundancy() node_effsize() node_efficiency() node_constraint() node_hierarchy()

Measures of structural holes

network_richness() node_richness() network_diversity() node_diversity() network_homophily() node_homophily() network_assortativity()

Measures of network diversity

network_core() network_factions() network_modularity() network_smallworld() network_scalefree() network_balance()

Measures of network topological features


Functions for calculating subgraphs in multimodal networks. These functions have an additional dimension than node_ and network_ measures and marks that capture the different motifs surveyed.

node_brokerage_census() network_brokerage_census()

Censuses of brokerage motifs

network_dyad_census() network_triad_census() network_mixed_census()

Censuses of motifs at the network level

node_tie_census() node_triad_census() node_quad_census() node_path_census()

Censuses of nodes' motifs


Functions for identifying community, cluster, or class memberships in partitions within multimodal networks. They return integer vectors the length of the nodes in the network.

node_kernighanlin() node_walktrap() node_edge_betweenness() node_fast_greedy()

Community graph partitioning algorithms

node_components() node_weak_components() node_strong_components() node_coreness()

Component partitioning algorithms

node_equivalence() node_structural_equivalence() node_regular_equivalence() node_automorphic_equivalence()

Equivalence clustering algorithms


Core-periphery clustering algorithms


Functions for modelling multimodal networks:

test_random() test_permutation()

Conditional uniform graph and permutation tests


Linear and logistic regression for network data

play_diffusion() play_diffusions() play_learning()

Functions to play games on networks

cluster_hierarchical() cluster_concor()

Methods for equivalence clustering


Functions for plotting and visualising graphs of different types:

autographr() autographs()

Quickly graph networks with sensible defaults

layout_tbl_graph_frgrid() layout_tbl_graph_kkgrid() layout_tbl_graph_gogrid() layout_tbl_graph_stressgrid()

Layouts for snapping layouts to a grid

layout_tbl_graph_hierarchy() layout_tbl_graph_alluvial() layout_tbl_graph_railway() layout_tbl_graph_ladder() layout_tbl_graph_concentric()

Layout algorithms based on bi- or other partitions


Plot lineage graph


Plot the evolution of a network


The package contains two collections of multimodal, multilevel, and multiplex network data, including data used in the book Multimodal Political Networks (prefixed with mpn_) and for the course ‘Social Networks Theories and Methods’ (ison_).


Multimodal (3) Bristol protest events, 1990-2002 (Diani and Bison 2004)

mpn_cow_trade mpn_cow_igo

One-mode interstate trade relations and two-mode state membership in IGOs (COW)


One-mode Mexican power elite database (Knoke 1990)

mpn_elite_usa_advice mpn_elite_usa_money

Two-mode and three-mode American power elite database (Domhoff 2016)

mpn_IT_1990 mpn_IT_1990 mpn_IT_2008 mpn_DE_1990 mpn_DE_2008 mpn_UK_1990 mpn_UK_2008

Two-mode European Values Survey, 1990 and 2008 (EVS 2020)


One-mode EU policy influence network, June 2004 (Christopoulos 2006)

mpn_DemSxP mpn_RepSxP mpn_OverSxP

Two-mode 112th Congress Senate Voting (Knoke et al. 2021)


One-mode subset (8 individuals) of the adolescent society (Coleman 1961).


Multiplex graph object of friends, social, and task ties (McFarland 2001)

ison_brandes ison_brandes2

One-mode and two-mode centrality demonstration networks


One-mode karateka network (Zachary 1977)


One-mode interaction network of Lord of the Rings (book) character interactions

ison_marvel_teams ison_marvel_relationships

Multilevel two-mode affiliation, signed one-mode networks of Marvel comic book characters (Yüksel 2017)


One-mode EIES dataset (Freeman and Freeman 1979)

ison_mm ison_bm ison_mb ison_bb

Two-mode projection examples (Hollway 2021)


Two-mode southern women (Davis, Gardner and Gardner 1941)