Functions for constructing, simulating, and importing one-mode and two-mode networks:

create_empty() create_complete() create_ring() create_star() create_tree() create_lattice() create_components() create_core()

Make networks with defined structures

generate_random() generate_smallworld() generate_scalefree() generate_permutation()

Make networks with a stochastic element

read_edgelist() write_edgelist() read_nodelist() write_nodelist() read_pajek() write_pajek() read_ucinet() write_ucinet()

Make networks from/to external formats


Functions for coercing objects between different classes, reformatting or transforming the type of network, or adding information to or retrieving information from the network.

as_edgelist() as_matrix() as_igraph() as_tidygraph() as_network() as_graphAM()

Coercion between migraph-compatible object classes

to_uniplex() to_undirected() to_redirected() to_unweighted() to_unsigned() to_unnamed() to_named() to_simplex() to_onemode() to_multilevel() to_twomode()

Tools for reformatting networks, graphs, and matrices

to_mode1() to_mode2() to_giant() to_subgraph() to_ties() to_blocks() to_matching()

Tools for transforming networks, graphs, and matrices

add_node_attribute() add_tie_attribute() copy_node_attributes() join_ties()

Adding and copying attributes from one graph to another

node_names() node_mode() node_attribute() tie_attribute() tie_weights() tie_signs() network_nodes() network_ties() network_dims() network_node_attributes() network_tie_attributes()

Grab various node or edge attributes from a network


Functions for identifying properties of graphs, nodes or ties, all returning logical scalars or vectors. Note that all node_ and tie_ measures return a single vector so that they can be added directly to graph objects. graph_ measures return one or, in some cases of two-mode measures, two values.

is_migraph() is_graph() is_edgelist() is_twomode() is_weighted() is_directed() is_labelled() is_signed() is_connected() is_complex() is_multiplex() is_uniplex() is_acyclic()

Marking networks based on their properties

node_is_cutpoint() node_is_isolate() node_is_max() node_is_min()

Marking nodes based on their properties

tie_is_multiple() tie_is_loop() tie_is_reciprocated() tie_is_bridge() tie_is_max() tie_is_min()

Marking ties based on their properties


Functions for measuring multimodal networks, all returning numeric scalars or vectors. Note that all node_ and tie_ measures return a single vector so that they can be added directly to graph objects. graph_ measures return one or, in some cases of two-mode measures, two values.

network_density() network_components() network_cohesion() network_adhesion() network_diameter() network_length()

Measures of network cohesion or connectedness

node_degree() tie_degree() node_closeness() tie_closeness() node_betweenness() tie_betweenness() node_eigenvector() tie_eigenvector() node_reach()

Measures of node and tie centrality

network_degree() network_closeness() network_betweenness() network_eigenvector()

Measures of network centralisation

network_reciprocity() network_transitivity() network_equivalency() network_congruency()

Measures of network closure

node_bridges() node_redundancy() node_effsize() node_efficiency() node_constraint() node_hierarchy()

Measures of structural holes

network_diversity() network_homophily() network_assortativity()

Measures of network diversity

network_core() network_factions() network_modularity() network_smallworld() network_balance()

Measures of network topological features


Functions for calculating subgraphs in multimodal networks. These functions have an additional dimension than node_ and graph_ measures and marks that capture the different motifs surveyed.

network_dyad_census() network_triad_census() network_mixed_census()

Censuses of graphs' motifs

node_tie_census() node_triad_census() node_quad_census() node_path_census()

Censuses of nodes' motifs


Functions for identifying community, cluster, or class memberships in partitions within multimodal networks. They return integer vectors the length of the nodes in the network.


Community graph partitioning algorithms

node_components() node_weak_components() node_strong_components() node_coreness()

Component partitioning algorithms

node_equivalence() node_structural_equivalence() node_regular_equivalence() node_automorphic_equivalence()

Equivalence clustering algorithms


Core-periphery clustering algorithms


Functions for modelling multimodal networks:

test_random() test_permutation()

Conditional uniform graph and permutation tests


Linear and logistic regression for network data

cluster_hierarchical() cluster_concor()

Methods for equivalence clustering


Functions for plotting and visualising graphs of different types:


Quickly graph networks with sensible defaults

layout_tbl_graph_frgrid() layout_tbl_graph_kkgrid() layout_tbl_graph_gogrid() layout_tbl_graph_stressgrid()

Layouts for snapping layouts to a grid

layout_tbl_graph_hierarchy() layout_tbl_graph_alluvial() layout_tbl_graph_railway() layout_tbl_graph_ladder() layout_tbl_graph_concentric()

Layout algorithms based on bi- or other partitions


Plot lineage graph


Plot the evolution of a network


The package contains two collections of multimodal, multilevel, and multiplex network data, including data used in the book Multimodal Political Networks (prefixed with mpn_) and for the course ‘Social Networks Theories and Methods’ (ison_).


Multimodal (3) Bristol protest events, 1990-2002 (Diani and Bison 2004)

mpn_cow_trade mpn_cow_igo

One-mode interstate trade relations and two-mode state membership in IGOs (COW)


One-mode Mexican power elite database (Knoke 1990)

mpn_elite_usa_advice mpn_elite_usa_money

Two-mode and three-mode American power elite database (Domhoff 2016)

mpn_IT_1990 mpn_IT_1990 mpn_IT_2008 mpn_DE_1990 mpn_DE_2008 mpn_UK_1990 mpn_UK_2008

Two-mode European Values Survey, 1990 and 2008 (EVS 2020)


One-mode EU policy influence network, June 2004 (Christopoulos 2006)

mpn_DemSxP mpn_RepSxP mpn_OverSxP

Two-mode 112th Congress Senate Voting (Knoke et al. 2021)


One-mode subset (8 individuals) of the adolescent society (Coleman 1961).


Multiplex graph object of friends, social, and task ties (McFarland 2001)

ison_brandes ison_brandes2

One-mode and two-mode centrality demonstration networks


One-mode karateka network (Zachary 1977)

ison_marvel_teams ison_marvel_relationships

Multilevel two-mode affiliation, signed one-mode networks of Marvel comic book characters (Yüksel 2017)


One-mode EIES dataset (Freeman and Freeman 1979)

ison_mm ison_bm ison_mb ison_bb

Two-mode projection examples (Hollway 2021)


Two-mode southern women (Davis, Gardner and Gardner 1941)